• 研究论文 •
Abstract: The Hengduan Mountain Region on the south-eastern fringe of the Qinghai- Xizang (Tibet) Plateau is located in W. Sichuan, N. W. Yunnan and E. Xizang, with a wide area of juxtaposition from the east to the west, the mountains extending and the rivers flowing from the north to the south. In this paper it covers an area from Daojie, Wayao, Yingping, Yangbi, Dali of Yunnan and Dukou of Sichuan in the south, to Banbar, Dengqeu, Shenda of Tibet and Serxu, Dainkog, Shuajingsi and Nanping (Jiuzhaigou) of Sichuan in the north, and from Lharong, Baxoi and Zayü of Tibet in the west, to Maowen, Wenchuan, Mt. Erlang, Mt. Emei and Xichang of Sichuan in the east (Fig. 1.). The Gongga Mountain is the highest in the region, its summit being at an altitude of 7556m, whereas the Dadu River Valley in the eastern part of the area is only 1150 m above sea level. Therefore, the relative height is about 6400 m in the region. The Hengduan Mountain Region is well-known for its various topography, complex natural conditions and rich flora. The floristic composition and features of orchids in Hengduan Mountain Region. 1. The species of orchids are abundant in the region. As we know so far, orchids in the Hengduan Mountain Region comprise 91 genera and 363 species with 9 varieties, and thus it is one of concentration centres of orchids in China, making up 56.17% of the total number of orchids genera in China, only less than in Yunnan and Taiwan, and 34.87% of the total number of orchids species in China, only less than in Yunnan and Sichuan. 2. The orchids genera in the Hengduan Mountain Region are complex in geographical components as indicated below: (1) Four geneva are endemic to China and one of them is endemic to the region. (2) Fourteen genera are of the north temperate distribution pattern, 2 of the Old World temperate one, 18 of the East-Asian one (including Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese) and 3 of the East-Asian-North American one. (3) Twenty one genera belong to the tropical Asian distribution pattern, 3 to the tropical Asian-tropical African one, 13 to the tropical Asian-tropical Australian one, 1 to the tropical Asian-tropical South American one, 8 to the Old World tropical one and 2 to the pantropical one. (4) Two genera are cosmopolitan. The analysis of genera: Fourty eight genera (containing 151 species with 4 varie- ties) of the tropical distribution occur in the region, among which Calanthe and Cymbidium distributed in the temperate region, and Bulbophyllum and Peristylus in the subtropical part of China are comparatively abundant (with over 10 species), but the other 25 genera are mo- nospecific and 11 genera each contain only 2-3 species. Some epiphytic genera mainly distri- buted in tropical Asia and belonging to tropical florestic elements, such as Vanda, Luisia, Schoenorchis, Flickingeria, Monomeria, Kingidium, Acampe, Phalaenopsis, Thrixspermum, Eria, Taeniophyllum, and terrestrial genera, such as Aphyllorchis, Collabium, Mischobulbum, Paphiopedilum, Thunia, Brachycarythis, Satyrium, Corybas, Geodorum, Zeuxine, Tropidia, have the Hengduan Mountain Region as the northern limit of distribution. Of 151 species with 4 varieties, 41 species with 4 varieties are endemic to China, and 14 species with 3 varie- ties of them are endemic to the area, making up 3.86% of the total in the region under discussion. There are 41 genera (containing 189 species with 5 varieties) of the temperate distribution, which occur in the region. Among them Platanthera (22 species with 1 variety), Cypripe- dium (17 species), Herminium (16 species), Amitostigma (15 species with 1 variety), Orchis (12 species), Hemipilia (8 species with 1 variety), Neottianthe (4 species), Gymnadenia (4 species), Diphylax (3 species), Bletilla (3 species), have the Hengduan Mountain Region as the distribution centre and differentiation centre. Among the 189 species with 5 varieties, 111 species with 5 varieties are endemic to China, and 54 species with 5 varieties are endemic to the area, making up 14.88% of the total of orchids in the Hengduan Mountain Region. Although the number of temperate distribution genera is smaller than that of tropical distribution ones, se- veral points may be mentioned: (1) The Hengduan Mountain Region is distribution centre and differentiation centre of a number of temperate genera in China, and is the northern limit of many genera mainly dis- tributed in the tropics. (2) The number in the former category is obviously larger than that in the latter. (3) Endemic species in the former category in the area are over three times as many as those in the latter. The differentiation of species of the temperate distribution genera is obviously stronger than the tropical ones, which characterizes the orchid flora in the area as the temperate one. The life forms of genera. The orchid flora in the Hengduan Mountain Region so far known comprises 91 genera, among which 51 are terrestrial, 32 epiphytic and 8 saprophytic, thus with the terrestrial one dominant. The analysis of species: The orchid flora in the Hengduan Mountain Region so far known comprises 363 species with 9 varieties. Their distribution patterns and floristic components, to which they belong, are indicated as follows: (1) Fifty four species, belonging to 33 genera, are widespread, covering the whole East- Asian Region, but 6 of them are endemic to China. (2) Forty four species, belonging to 27 genera, are the elements of the Sino-Japanese Subregion, but 22 species of them are endemic to China. (3) One hundred and ninety five species with nine varieties, belonging to 53 genera, are the elements of the Sino-Himalayan Subregion under discussion: (A) Four species (i.e. Aphyllorchis alpine, Listera divaricata, L. pinetorum and Oreor- chis micrantha) are distributed in the Himalayan Region and S. E. Xizang (Tibet), western part of this region. (B) Twenty five species, belonging to 17 genera, are distributed in N. W. Yunnan and the Himalayan Region (Appendix, 1.). (C) Sixteen species, belonging to 11 genera, are distributed in the Himalayan region and W. Sichuan. Among them 6 species occur only with Mt. Emei as the easternmost limit and 10 species occur in the region west of Mt. Emei. (D) Ten species, belonging to 9 genera, are distributed in the Himalayan region, this region and S. Shaanxi, S. Gansu or S. E. Qinghai. (E) Eight species, belonging to 6 genera, are distributed in the Himalayan region and this region. Among them 6 species have their range extending eastwards to Guizhou and 2 species eastwards to Guangxi. (F) Five species, belonging to 5 genera, having their range extending from this region southwards to N. Burma. (G) One handred and twenty seven species with nine v
朗楷永. 横断山地区兰科植物区系的研究[J]. 植物分类学报, 1990, 28(5): 356-371.
Lang Kai-Yung. Notes on the Orchid Flora in the Hengduan Mountain Region, China[J]. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 1990, 28(5): 356-371.
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